Few plants are as smile-inducing as sunflowers, with their cheerful yellow faces reaching for the sun. They also make excellent cut flowers, adding a punch of color to bouquets and floral arrangements.The common sunflower (H. annuus) is an annual herb with a rough hairy stem 1–4.5 metres (3–15 feet) high and broad, coarsely toothed, rough leaves 7.5–30 cm (3–12 inches) long arranged in spirals.
The attractive heads of flowers are 7.5–15 cm wide in wild specimens and often 30 cm or more in cultivated types. The disk flowers are brown, yellow, or purple, while the petallike ray flowers are yellow. The fruit is a single-seeded achene. Oilseed varieties typically have small black achenes, while those grown for direct seed consumption, known as confection varieties, have larger black-and-white achenes that readily separate from the seed within.